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In fact, between 2000 and 2007, Spain was Europe’s leading immigration country. Its foreign-born population grew by 4. 8 million over that time and the immigrant share of Spain’s population jumped from 2 percent to 12 percent—a remarkable rate of growth over a few short years. Figure 3. Foreign-Born Population in Spain, 1998-2021 A Dual Labor Market Emerges Historically, the demand for new workers had been filled by rural Spaniards migrating internally towards cities.
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In general, emigration from Romania to all countries seems to be plateauing. The number of Romanian emigrants worldwide tripled between 2000 and 2010, from 1. 1 million to more than 3. 3 million, and then increased much more slowly over the following decade, rising to just under 4 million by 2020, according to UN Population Division figures. Importantly, the decline in the Romanian population in Spain does not seem to be the result of anti-Romanian or anti-immigrant sentiment.
5 percent, outpacing the United States (2 percent) and the combined nations of the Organization for Cooperation and Development (OECD; 1. 8 percent). Between 1995 and 2001, the Spanish economy generated on average 670, 000 new jobs annually, a large majority in immigrant-dense industries such as agriculture and construction. Table 1. Average Annual Salary in Romania and Spain in Euros, 1996-2007 Sources: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, “Average Annual Wages, ” accessed August 23, 2022, available online; Datosmacro, “Rumanía – Salario Medio, ” accessed August 23, 2022, available online Another reason Spain was an attractive destination was the largely welcoming attitude of its native population.
More than 1 Million People Regularized Each time Spain reformed its migration laws after joining the European Union, it also offered opportunities for unauthorized immigrants to obtain legal status, which helped provide a pathway for many Romanians and other migrants. Between 1985 and 2005, the Spanish government conducted six regularization campaigns, resulting in more than 1 million people gaining legal status.
Declining Numbers of Romanians in Spain Today When their country became an EU Member State in 2007, Romanian citizens received the right to visa-free movement within the European free-movement zone, needing to show only a passport or identity document. For stays longer than three months, Romanians had to demonstrate that they could support themselves financially. However, EU accession marked the start of less restrictive travel—not the right to work at destination.
While upticks in anti-Romanian hostility did surface during the Eurozone crisis due to the economic turmoil, Spain has historically been more welcoming to immigrants than other Western European countries. In recent years, this has started to change as the rise of a new far-right political party, Vox, has coincided with increases in more hardline viewpoints among the Spanish population. The decreasing number of Romanian immigrants will likely continue due to the significant impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on industries necessitating only lower levels of education, where Romanians tend to cluster, as well as improving economic conditions in Romania and the relative difficulty of obtaining permanent employment in Spain.
Romanians were prime beneficiaries of these campaigns, especially after 1996. Since Romanians started to arrive in Spain in the early 1990s, they had established networks to help facilitate legalization in the 1996, 2000, 2001, and 2005 regularization campaigns. By the end of 2006, 60 percent of Romanians living in Spain legally had acquired status through one of the final three regularization campaigns. Individuals who regularized were given one-year residency and work permits that were renewable annually until they were eligible to apply for permanent legal status after five years of continuous legal residency. Similarly, the arraigo or “rootedness” program created in 2004 provided irregular migrants another way to legalize their status, on a case-by-case basis. There are two pathways, social and labor, with differing requirements, and many unauthorized Romanians were able to meet the conditions for at least one.
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Two years later, Spain allowed Romanians full access to its labor market, closed it off in August 2011 amid the Eurozone crisis, and then reopened access in 2014. This policy change helps explain why the number of Romanians in Spain has declined by 33 percent since 2012. Another key factor is the improving economic situation in Romania, with average annual wages topping 12, 000 euros as of 2021, a more than sixfold increase from 2001.
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This led the village to create a strong culture of migration. Given that extensive networks were already established, residents of Feldru had an easier time migrating to countries such as Spain once conditions were conducive. Residents of Luncavița, meanwhile, could historically find employment nearby in agriculture, fishing, and manufacturing, and thereby felt less pressure to emigrate.
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